Review Study Published in Nutrients Shows American Adults Lack Critical Nutrients to Maintain a Healthy Immune System

West Hills, Calif. (June 25, 2020) – Pharmavite LLC, the makers of Nature Made vitamins, minerals and supplements, announced the publication of a review paper in the June issue of the journal Nutrients, highlighting research that a significant number of Americans are falling short in consuming critical nutrients to help maintain a healthy immune system, including immune function and response.

Results show that 95% of the adult U.S. population had inadequate intake of vitamin D and 84% had inadequate intake of vitamin E. Further, 45% had a prevalence of inadequacy for vitamin A, 46% had a prevalence of inadequacy for vitamin C and 15% had a had a prevalence of inadequacy for zinc.[i]

Data was analyzed from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), a bi-yearly cross-sectional study of the US population conducted by Centers for Disease Prevention and Control (CDC) in 26,282 adults aged 19 to 99 years. The review focused on nutrients, such as vitamins A, C, D, E, and zinc due to the substantial nutrient inadequacies found in the U.S. population in previous studies.

“It’s imperative that we are mindful of what we put into our bodies and the nutrient content of those foods,” said Susan Mitmesser, PhD, Vice President of Science & Technology at Pharmavite.  “This paper highlights the critical role a strong immune system plays in our overall health and the role nutrient gaps, in vitamins A, E, D, C, and zinc, play in undermining our immune system’s ability to fight off foreign invaders.”

Findings from the data also indicate that dietary supplements can help address these shortfalls and fill dietary gaps. While a healthy, nutrient-dense diet is optimal for consuming the necessary nutrients, the research shows Americans are not eating the foods necessary to meet the average requirements as defined by The Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

The percentage of the population with intakes below the recommended amount for vitamin D was 95% from food only, and 65% from food and supplements. Similarly, the percentage of the population with intakes below the recommended amount for vitamin E was 84% from food only, and 60% from food and supplements. As a result, researchers suggest adding a multivitamin/mineral supplement as an addition to their daily regimen, in addition to a healthy diet, to ensure adequate intake of essential nutrients for general health.i

Access the review paper, “Inadequacy of Immune Health Nutrients: Intakes in US Adults, the 2005–2016 NHANES,” online at:

About Pharmavite LLC

Pharmavite is a leader in the health and wellness industry, earning the trust of healthcare professionals, consumers, and retailers by manufacturing high-quality nutrition products and solutions under its Nature Made®, EQUELLE®, MegaFood and Innate Response brands. Pharmavite is dedicated to helping people live healthier, more vital lives by producing the highest-quality products and providing trust and transparency. Based in California, Pharmavite LLC is a subsidiary of Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Visit for more information.

[i] Reider CA, Chung R-Y, Devarshi PP, Grant RW, Hazels Mitmesser S. Inadequacy of Immune Health Nutrients: Intakes in US Adults, the 2005–2016 NHANES. Nutrients. 2020; 12(6):1735.

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